Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic resistance takes place when an antibiotic is unable to kill a bacteria or inhibit its growth. The bacteria, therefore, become resistant to a wide range of known antibiotics. The condition is commonly referred to as MRSA. Bacteria become antibiotic resistant when they come up with mechanisms to prevent antibiotic action on them. Bacteria contain a cell wall, whose production when inhibited will limit survival. For antibiotics to be effective on bacteria, they limit cell wall production, block synthesis of DNA and RNA and also interfere with protein synthesis. Through mutation and other defense mechanism, bacteria can resist this antibiotic action on them, hence termed as resistant.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the bacteria that has been verified to have high antibiotic resistance. It is highly resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin. This antibiotic kills bacterium by inhibiting the enzyme transpeptidase which is responsible for the last step of cell wall biosynthesis. Penicillin’s mechanism action is to hinder new cell wall formation. Hence the bacterium is exposed to outside pressure and quickly dies.

Due to improper usage of antibiotics, bacteria are likely to be resistant, thus causing increased rate of mutations and transfer of genetic information for resistance to antibiotics. Chromosomal mutations of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has weakened penicillin penetration on the outer membrane. There has been a high-level penicillin resistance in the mutated Neisseria gonorrhoeae with plasmid-mediated penicillinase production.

Horizontal transfer of genetic information occurs when there is gene transfer between different species of bacteria. Resistant bacteria are transmitted through physical contact, and it could also be airborne. It can be regulated by observation of hygiene and following medical prescriptions of antibiotics administered. In animal husbandry, regular MRSA screening should be done to avoid the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

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Genetic Engineering to Reverse Antibiotic Resistance

Genetic engineering technique has been developed by researchers allowing bacteria that is drug resistant, for the first time to be considered drug sensitive. This method of negating antibiotic resistance seems to be cheaper as compared to other recent drug development approaches. At the moment, scientists can hijack the biosynthetic bacteria machinery to create antibiotics that grant individuals vitality (Aydin et al., 2015).

Professor Chaitan Khosla’s lab has its genetic engineers insert the largest to-date genes into the bacterium of Escherichia coli, altering this microbe to make it an organism that can produce new erythromycin precursors in large quantities, a substitute of penicillin. To give erythromycin novel properties as well as modify it the genes are re-programed (Baym et al., 2016).

Initially, chemistry was used to alter the erythromycin molecule, an approach that is very costly. Today, the experiment doesn’t apply chemist, and the genes are reprogramed to make erythromycin that is modified. This technique takes a shorter time and is more efficient.

Opportunities for research funding is available through several channels including the research grants. These include the Collaborative Research Programme and the International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, a source devoted to financing projects addressing the scientific problems that are original and are of specific importance for the host country as well as regional interest. Host countries benefit in that this reduces the cost of dealing with the disease if a cure is found. Many human lives would be saved (Yosef et al., 2015).

Several people have interest, and their reasons are clear. A successful process would save several human lives. Moreover, individuals would pay less for an efficient treatment. Numerous people would be saved in a year.

There are several significant concerns. One primary care is that the process uses viral vector carrying the functional gene in the body of human beings and until now there it is unknown to where the genes that are functioning are being placed. This might lead to the health situation. Another concern is that the process is irreversible. There are fears that the disease-causing organism might bring a worldwide disaster.

Currently, there are regulations monitoring GMO’s. In the United States, genetically modified organisms are regulated regarding health, safety, as well as environmental legislation that governs unoriginal products. The country’s approach to GMO’s regulation is based on the assumption that management ought to concentrate on the products nature, instead of the production process.

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